Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi: Brief Introduction
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born in Gujarat on 2nd October 1869. When he was a child of 12 years old he was married. He went by age 19 to England for higher studies. His mother was apprehensive about men going to society.
But her fears were allayed, Gandhi vowed to not touch woman, wine and meat. He faced a lot of difficulty as a result of his vegetarianism but fulfilled his vow. He qualified from England for the bar and came back to India. He began his practice at Bombay and Rajkot, but he wasn’t a major success at the bar. He was taken by his obligation to South Africa. He stayed for approximately 12 years, although he went there for a time period. He prevents him was his participation in the agitation in South Africa, that he launched against injustice and inequality being so meted out to Indians.
Gokhale advised him to familiarize himself together with the Indian people by visiting rural India. Mahatma Gandhi visited the entire countryside for a whole year listening more than talking to the people. At the start, he was loyal to the English Empire. He said As a passive resident I discovered that the English Empire had certain ideas which I’ve fallen in love together with and one of those ideas in that each topic of the Empire has the free scope of his energies and honours. And I’ve found that it’s feasible for me to be governed less under the English Empire.
But with the passing of time and with the changing of circumstances his attitude to the English Empire underwent a change. Following the disappearance of supporters like Gokhale and Tilak out of that the political scene of India, he entered that the political arena and began opposing the English Empire.
Major Movements Led By Gandhi Ji
Champaran Movement (1917)
The Champaran rebellion in Bihar was the primary active involvement of Gandhi within the Indian freedom struggle. When Gandhi returned to India in 1915, the country was reeling under the tyrannous colonial rule. The British forced the farmers to grow indigo and other cash crops on their fertile land, and then sell these crops to them at a much cheaper price. The situation became a lot grotesque for the farmers because of the harsh climate and levy of serious taxes pushing them towards abject poorness. Having known about of matter of farmers at Champaran, Gandhi immediately paid a visit to this district in April 1917. He adopted the approach of the civil disobedience movement and launched demonstrations and strikes against the landlords and bringing them down on their knees. As a result, they signed an agreement in which they granted control and compensations to the farmers, and cancelled the hikes in revenue and collection. Status of Mahatma is earned by Gandhi Ji after the success of the movement.
Kheda Movement (1918)
Kheda movement was the consequence of the financial atrocities afflicted by the British landlords on the farmers of the Kheda village in Gujarat. The village was massively affected by the floods and famine in 1918 which resulted in the destruction of the crop yields. The farmers requested the British government to exempt them from the payment of taxes but the authorities refused. Under the leadership of Gandhi and Vallabhbhai Patel, the farmers launched a crusade against the government and pledged for the non-payment of taxes. As a result, the government threatened the peasants with the seizure of their land but they remain undeterred. After 5 months of persistent struggle, in may 1918, British government abandoning of the payment of taxes by the farmers till the deluge got over and additionally returned the seized properties of the farmers.
Khilafat Movement (1919)
After World War I, several humiliating allegations were placed on the Caliph and the Ottoman Empire. The Muslims became fearful for the protection of their calif and launched khilafat movement below the steering of Gandhi to fight against the British government to revive the collapsing position of the Caliph in Turkey. In 1919 Gandhi Ji came together with the Muslim community and request their political support in India’s freedom struggle and supported their community in launching the Khilafat movement. He became a notable interpreter of the All India Muslim Conference and returned the medals received from British Empire in the African country. The success of this movement created him the national leader in no time.
Non-Cooperation Movement (1920)
Jallianwala Bagh Massacre was the sole reason behind the commencement of the Non-Cooperation Movement in 1920. It shook Gandhi to the core making him realized that the Britishers were successful in enjoying control over Indians because of the cooperation they are getting from them. This was the instant once he determined to launch a Non-Cooperation Movement. With the support of Congress and his invincible spirit, he became successful in convincing people that adhering to non-cooperation in a peaceful way is the key to attaining independence. Subsequently, Gandhi framed the thought of Swaraj and since then it became the core component within the Indian freedom struggle. The movement gained momentum and shortly, people started boycotting establishments run by the British like schools, colleges, and government offices. But shortly this movement was terminated by Gandhi himself once it due to Chauri Chaura incident during which twenty-three police officials were killed.
Quit India Movement (1942)
Quit India movement was launched by Gandhi on eighth August 1942 throughout the second world war so as to drive British rule out of India. The India Congress Committee, underneath the insistence of Gandhi, demanded a mass British withdrawal from India and Gandhi delivered a “Do or Die” speech. As a consequence, the entire members of the Indian National Congress were immediately arrested by the British officials and imprisoned without trial. But the demonstrations and protests continued across the country. Even though the Britishers were somehow fortunate in suppressing the Quit India Movement however shortly realised that their days of the decree India were over. By the end of World War II, they made clear indications of handing over the powers to India. Eventually, Gandhi ends the movement leading to the discharge of thousands of prisoners.
Civil Disobedience Movement: Dandi March
The direct action movement was an important part of Indian freedom struggle led by Gandhi against the ruling colonial government.
While addressing the state by a newspaper, Young Republic of India, in March 1930, Gandhi expressed his consent to suspend the movement if his eleven demands get accepted by Britishers. But Lord Irwin’s government did not respond back to him. As a result, he initiated the movement in full vigour.
The movement began with the Dandi March that was led by Gandhi on twelfth March 1930 from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi in Gujarat. After reaching Dandi, Gandhi and his followers violated the salt laws by making salt from the salted sea water. After this, breaking British laws became widespread phenomena in India. People started the sale of the restricted political pamphlets violating Section 144. Gandhiji urged Indian ladies to begin spinning and shortly Indians started complaining in the front of the govt offices and outlets mercantilism foreign product. Women of India have started participating in the Indian freedom struggle. Sarojini Naidu came to the forefront throughout this movement. In the north-west, the most popular leader was Abdul Gaffar Khan, often called “Frontier Gandhi”.
The Lord Irwin’s government called for round Table conference in 1930 in London and the Indian National Congress refused to be a part of it. Just to make sure that Congress attend the second roundtable conference, Lord Irwin signed a pact with Gandhi in 1931. It was called the Gandhi-Irwin Pact. The pact talked about the releasing of all the political prisoners and cancellation of all the oppressive laws.
Following saying are famous Mahatma Gandhi quotations.
- The future is determined by what we do in the present.
- Our ability as people is not to change the world, but to change ourselves.
- It does not need money, to live dignified, clean and neat.
- Discuss only when it improves upon the silence.
- Relationships are based on four principles: acceptance, understanding, respect and admiration.
- Its simple to stand with the crowd.
- You go through difficulties and decide not to surrender, that’s potency.
- Cautiously watch your ideas, for they become your words.
- Manage and watch your words, for they’ll become your actions.
- Consider and judge your actions, for they’ve become your habits.
- Acknowledge and watch your own habits, for they will become your values.
- Understand and embrace your own values, for they become your own fate.
- Live as if you had been to die tomorrow. Learn as if you had been to live forever.
- Be the change you’re attempting to create.
- Happiness is when what you believe, what you say, and what you do are in harmony.
- Individuals that know how to believe need no teachers.
- Full effort is a full victory.
- It is health that wealth and not pieces of silver and gold.
- When I go to sleep, I perish Every night. And when I wake up, I’m reborn.
- Be Look at the sparrows, they don’t know exactly what they’ll do in the next moment.
- Be your very own judge and you’ll be truly happy.
- Never apologize for being years before your time, or for being proper.
- Speak your mind. Even when you’re a minority of one, the truth is still the truth.
- The knowledge accumulated through experience is far superior and several times more useful than bookish knowledge.
- If you wish to change the world, start with yourself.
- The enemy is fear. We think it’s hate, but it’s fear.
- No man loses his freedom except through his own weakness.
- Its the action, not the fruits of the action, that’s important.
- You’ve to do the right thing. But that does not mean you stop doing the best thing.
- You might never know exactly what results come from your action. However, if you do nothing, there’ll be no result.
- Find purpose. The means will follow.
- The law of love might be best understood and learned through little children.
- Strength doesn’t come from physical capacity, it comes from an indomitable will.
- Your actions express your priorities.
- You must not lose faith in humanity. Humanity is an ocean if a few drops of the ocean are dirty, the ocean doesn’t become dirty.
- For me, the various religions are beautiful flowers through the same garden, or they’re branches of the same majestic tree.